AbstractsPhysical restraint in residential child care: the experiences of young people and residential workers in ScotlandLaura Steckley and Andrew Kendrick2008 Childhood, 15(4), 552-569. There have long been concerns about the use of physical restraint in residential care. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that explores the experiences of children, young people and residential workers of physical restraint. The research identifies thedilemmas and ambiguities for both staff and young people, and participants discuss the situations where they feel physical restraint is appropriate as well as their concerns about unjustified or painful restraints. They describe the negative emotions involved in restraint but also those situations where, through positive relationships and trust, restraint can help young people through unsafe situations. The outcomes of secure care in ScotlandAndrew Kendrick, Moira Walker, Aileen Barclay, Lynne Hunter, Margaret Malloch, Malcolm Hill and Gill McIvor2008 Scottish Journal of Residential Child Care, 7(1), 1-13. This paper describes the findings of a three year study of the use and effectiveness of secure accommodation in Scotland. Data were collected on 53 young people shortly after their admission to secure accommodation. Most young people were admitted because they were a danger to themselves and/or they were likely to abscond; a third were considered a danger to others. Secure accommodation was considered to have benefits in relation to keeping young people safe and addressing health issues. On other dimensions, such as behaviour or family relationships, signs of benefit were more ambiguous. Thirty-three young people were considered to have clearly benefited from placement. At follow-up, after two years, outcomes were assessed as: 'good' - 14 (26%); 'medium'- 24 (45 %); and 'poor' - 15 (28%). The research highlighted the importance of effectively managing the transition from secure care. Social workers attributed a good outcome more to an appropriate placement and education being offered when the young person left secure rather than simply the placement itself. A gradual 'step-down' approach from the structure and supervision of the secure setting was also linked to better outcomes. Young people respond well whenoffered continuity and the opportunity to develop relationships with one or more reliable adults who can help with problems as they arise. Lessons learnt? Abuse and residential child care in ScotlandRobin Sen, Andrew Kendrick, Ian Milligan and Moyra Hawthorn2008 Child & Family Social Work, 13(4), 411-422. This paper draws on work carried out by Sen, Kendrick, Milligan and Hawthorn commissioned as part of the Historic Abuse Systemic Review by theScottish Executive in 2007. It considers the evidence base regarding abuse in residential child care from 1945 with a specific focus on Scotland. It reviews the context set for residential child care post-1945 by the Clyde and Curtis reports, outlines how the residential child care sector developed following this, provides an overview of evidence and awareness of abuse in residential child care establishments after the 1948 Children’s Act, giving particular consideration to the public inquiries and reviews of residential child care which there have been in Scotland, explores research evidence regarding the safety of convictions of residential child care workers found guilty of child abuse, and provides an overview of the main policy and practice developments which there have subsequently been in Scotland. The paper concludes by considering the progress that has been made in developing safeguards in Scotland and identifying areas where further research and development are required. Ethical issues, research and vulnerability: gaining the views of children and young people in residential careAndrew Kendrick, Laura Steckley and Jennifer Lerpiniere2008 Children's Geographies, 6(1), 79-93. Children and young people in residential care are some of the most vulnerable in our society. They may have experienced violence and physical, sexual or emotional abuse. They may be involved in offending or the misuse of drugs and alcohol. They are separated from their families and have to cope with living in a group situation with other young people and staff members. Children and young people in residential care also possess strengths, competencies and resilience. We have much to learn from their experiences and perspectives, both generally and surrounding their timein care. This paper will address the ethical issues which arise from gaining the views of children and young people in residential care, drawing onthe experience of carrying out three studies in particular (Kendrick et al. 2004, The development of a residential unit working with sexually aggressive young men. In: H.G. Eriksson and T. Tjelflaat, eds. Residential care: horizons for the new century. Aldershot: Ashgate, 38-55; Docherty et al. 2006,Designing with care: interior design and residential child care. Farm7 and SIRCC. http://www.sircc.strath.ac.uk/publications/Designing_with_Care.pdf; Steckley, L. and Kendrick, A., 2005. Physical restraint in residential child care: the experiences of young people and residential workers. Childhoods 2005: Children and Youth in Emerging and Transforming Societies, University of Oslo, Norway, 29 June-3 July 2005, Steckley and Kendrick 2007, Young people's experiences of physical restraint in residential care: subtlety and complexity in policy and practice. In: M. Nunno, L. Bullard and D. Day, eds.For our own safety: examining the safety of high-risk interventions for children and young people. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, forthcoming). The paper will discuss: information, consent and choice about involvement in the research; confidentiality, privacy and safety. It will also explore some of the more complex issues of ethical good practice which arise from researching children in their own living space. The negotiation of children's time and space must be approached carefully, with consideration of their rights and wishes. Sensitivity to children and young people's priorities and preoccupations must be paramount. Under one roof? A review and selective meta-analysis on the outcomes of residential child and youth careErik Knorth, Annemiek Harder, Tjalling Zandberg and Andrew Kendrick2008 Children and Youth Services Review, 30(2), 123-140. Residential child and youth care is a radical intervention that in many countries is perceived as a ‘last resort’ solution that should be avoided if at all possible — not least because of scepticism about its effectiveness. Against this, there is the view that a residential placement can contribute to the positive development of some youth with serious behavioral and/or emotional disturbances. In this context, it is remarkable that there are so fewreviews and meta-analyses of outcomes of residential child and youth care services. In this article, we report on research into outcome studies published in the period 1990–2005. The application of strict inclusion and selection criteria yielded 27 pre- and quasi-experimental studies (PE and QE) covering the development and outcomes for 2345 children and young persons. Since there is variation in the outcome measures, we give an integral overview of all the individual ES's in the studies. However, for seven studies with a PE-design it was possible to calculate an overall ES: the weighted mean effect sizes ranged from .45 (internalized problem behavior) to .60 (externalizing problem behavior; behavior problems in general). QE-studies prove that residential programs applying behavior-therapeutic methods and focusing on family involvement show the most promising short term outcomes. There is very little evidence on long term outcomes of residential care. It also strikes us that many studies lack a specific description of the residential intervention program. On the margin? Residential child care in Scotland and FinlandJoe Francis, Andrew Kendrick and Tarja Poso2007 European Journal of Social Work, 10(3), 337-352. Situated on the margins of Europe, Scotland and Finland are small countries which share similar demographic and economic profiles. In many European countries, residential child care can also be considered to be ‘on the margin’ of child care provision; there is ambivalence about residential care and a view that it should be used as a last resort. This paper examines systems and practices of residential care in Scotland and Finland, locating these in the context of wider child welfare policy in both countries. The underpinning principles of child welfare provision in both countries are similar*based on children’s rights and primarily family-focused. In both countries there are also similar concerns about the fragmentation of child care provision and the cost of residential services. However, there are also important differences relating to child welfare provision and the use of residential care. In Finland, overall numbers of children in residential care are much greater than in Scotland; the age profile of these children and young people is very different; and the two countries vary markedly in the use of secure accommodation and custody. This comparative analysis suggests new ways of understanding the similarities and difference in the use of residential care in the two countries. It highlights the continuing challenge to develop residential care as a positive and integral part of a continuum of care services. Safer Recruitment? Protecting Children, Improving Practice in Residential Child CareHelen Kay, Andrew Kendrick, Irene Stevens and Jennifer Davidson2007 Child Abuse Review, 16(4), 223-236. In the wake of a number of high-profile cases of the abuse of children and young people in residential child care, there have been repeated calls for the improvement of recruitment and selection of residential child care staff. This paper describes the findings from a survey, undertaken in 2005, of operational and human resource managers who have responsibility for the recruitment and selection of residential child care staff in the voluntaryand statutory sectors in Scotland. This research was commissioned by the Scottish Executive to identify which elements of safer recruitmentprocedures had been implemented following the countrywide launch of a Toolkit for Safer Recruitment Practice in 2001. Research findings showthat although local authorities were more likely than voluntary organisations to have gone some way toward implementing safer recruitment procedures, the recruitment process lacked rigour and commitment to safer procedures in some organisations. The article discusses the current barriers to theintroduction of safer recruitment methods and proposes some possible solutions for the future. More Haste, Less Speed? An Evaluation of Fast Track Policies to Tackle Persistent Youth Offending in ScotlandMalcolm Hill, Moira Walker, Kristina Moodie, Brendan Wallace, Jon Bannister, Furzana Khan, Gill McIvor and Andrew Kendrick2007 Youth Justice, 7(2), 121–138In 2003 the Scottish Executive introduced a new ‘Fast Track’ policy on a pilot basis, which was intended to speed up the processing of persistent youth offending cases and reduce rates of persistent offending. Additional resources were provided to promote access to dedicated programmes, as well as quicker assessment, report delivery and decision making. This paper, based on a multi-stranded comparative evaluation, describes how the policy was welcomed by a wide range of practitioners, decision makers and managers involved with children’s hearings who mostly thought it was a positive innovation consistent with the hearing system’s commitment to a welfare-based approach. ‘Fast Track’ cases were handled more quickly than others. After two years, however, the policy was discontinued, largely because of negative evidence about re-offending. Care in Mind: Improving the Mental Health of Children and Young People in State Care in ScotlandAndrew Kendrick, Ian Milligan and Judy Furnivall2004 International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 7(4), 184-196Some five thousand children and young people are in residential and foster care in Scotland. Many experience poor outcomes and concern about thequality of care has led to a number of government initiatives including the registration of care services and the social care workforce. Children and young people in state care experience a high level of mental health problems. Mental health services, however, have not served this vulnerable group well. The issue of the mental health of children and young people is now high on the government's agenda. A national needs assessment has set out an important agenda for the development of services. In addition, a number of innovative projects have focused on meeting the mental health needs of children and young people in state care. It is important that these developments lead to integrated and flexible mental health services in order to improve outcomes and well-being of children and young people in state care in Scotland. Beyond the New Horizon: Trends and Issues in Residential Child CareAndrew Kendrick2004 Journal of Child and Youth Care Work, 19, 71-80, Proceedings of Promise into Practice: Seventh International Child and Youth Care Conference University of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, August 2003High profile scandals of abuse and poor outcomes of children in residential child care have contributed to a government focus on improving the quality of services. There has also been a significant effort to promote the rights of children and young people. In Scotland, there have been a number of national developments which include national bodies to regulate social care services, the social care workforce and to co-ordinate the training ofresidential child care staff; legislation to enhance the protection of children; and the creation of the role of Children's Commissioner to promote children's rights. As well as these national measures, it is important to place the developmental and emotional needs of children and young peoplein residential care at the centre of quality services. Participation or Practice Innovation: Tensions in Inter-agency Working to Address Disciplinary Exclusion from SchoolJoan Stead, Gwynedd Lloyd and Andrew Kendrick2004 Children & Society, 18(1), 42-52This paper explores dilemmas and tensions between two models of school based inter-agency meetings to prevent disciplinary exclusion from school. The first model is characterised by innovative practice developed through long established professional relationships and addresses both individual and strategic issues in supporting young people who are at risk of disciplinary exclusion from school. The second model strongly emphasises the right to participation of young people and their families in school based inter-agency meetings. Research participants in three Scottish councils (parents, pupils, teachers and other professionals) had identified school based inter-agency meetings as key to the process of inter-agency workingto prevent school exclusion. Joined-Up Approaches to Prevent School ExclusionGwynedd Lloyd, Joan Stead and Andrew Kendrick2003 Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 8(1), 77-This article explores findings from a recent research project, funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation, and contextualizes these in a discussion of some current thinking about inclusion and exclusion. Although the research found that it was possible to prevent disciplinary exclusion from school and that inter-agency working was central to this, nevertheless strategies for preventing disciplinary exclusion often meant that young people were no longer very fully included in the mainstream school curriculum. This has implications for how we think about and use the idea of inclusion inpractice and raises questions about how we can include the most challenging young people into inclusion theory and practice. This research was carried out in Scotland, and the article also discusses some key differences in policy and practice from England. No Sign of Harm: Issues for Disabled Children Communicating About AbuseRebecca Oosterhoorn and Andrew Kendrick2001 Child Abuse Review, 10, 243-253While all children may be the victims of abuse, disabled children are particularly vulnerable. This paper explores the views of professionals working with children using alternative/augmented communication systems on the issues relating to communication about abuse. Interviews were carried out with 20 staff from eight establishments for disabled children across Scotland. It describes the range of alternative/augmented communicationsystems used and the barriers to communicating about abuse. Staff generally accepted the importance of providing the appropriate vocabulary inaugmented communication systems, but systems that provide such vocabulary were not widely used. Staff considered that a major difficulty concerned the level of understanding disabled children might have about concepts of abuse. They were unsure how the appropriate vocabulary could beintroduced in a natural way and how links could be made between the signs and their meanings. Staff saw themselves as those most able to protect the children, but it was felt that discovery of abuse was more likely to come from them noticing physical signs, behaviour or mood changes rather than from the child communicating explicitly about abuse. The need for appropriate training and increased coordination between social work, health and education is highlighted. Community Participation in the Development of Services: A Move towards Community EmpowermentSheila Watt, Cassie Higgins and Andrew Kendrick2000 Community Development Journal, 35(2), 120-132The principal aim of this community study was to devise a model - to be employed by a Council in the east of Scotland - for engaging local people inthe identification and assessment of expressed need and unmet need in relation to early years services. A collaborative approach with community members was used to identify issues, and to devise and partially pilot a model for future use in creating a 'dialogue' between the Council and its constituents. This paper outlines the methodology of the model and focuses on the successful aspects of the methodology and the obstacles encountered. The findings can be extrapolated onto many contexts where there is a desire to move towards developing an authority-community approach and, as such, will be of interest to policy-makers and practitioners alike. Hidden on the Ward: The Abuse of Children in HospitalsAndrew Kendrick and Julie Taylor2000 Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31(3), 565-573While there have been a small number of high profile cases of the abuse of children by hospital staff, there has been relatively little attention paid tothe child protection issues for children staying in hospitals. Drawing on a conceptual framework from work on institutional abuse, we identify three types of abuse: physical and sexual abuse; programme abuse; and system abuse. Physical and sexual abuse can be perpetrated by medical professionals and hospital workers, it can be perpetrated by other children, or it can be perpetrated by the child's own parent(s). Research evidence from the United States suggests that the rate of abuse in hospitals is higher than in the family home. Programme abuse occurs when treatment and care falls below normally accepted standards. Recently, a tragic case of programme abuse concerned the unacceptably high death rate of babies undergoing heart surgery at Bristol Royal Infirmary. System abuse is the most difficult to define but concerns the way in which child health servicesfail to meet the needs of children. Recent reports have highlighted inadequate services for children and young people, lack of priority given tochildren's services, and geographical inequalities in the provision of services. Three crucial aspects in safeguarding children from abuse are highlighted: listening to children; the selection support and training of staff; and external systems of inspection, monitoring and standards. The recentgovernment agenda which has placed quality at the centre of NHS service developments are discussed. Only by addressing the abuse of childrenin hospital openly and honestly will effective child protection be possible. In Their Best Interest? Protecting Children from Abuse in Residential and Foster CareAndrew Kendrick1998 International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 3(2), 169-185There is increasing concern about the abuse of children in residential and foster care. Information on the abuse of children is reviewed and three types of abuse are identified: the physical and sexual abuse of children; programme abuse and system abuse. Developments in organisation, management and procedures to prevent abuse by staff and carers in residential and foster care in the UK are highlighted. Three crucial aspects in safeguarding children are stressed: listening to children; the selection, support, and training of staff and carers; and promoting openness through the involvement of families and the community. While improvements have undoubtedly taken place in policy and practice, there can be no room for complacency. The UK experience, therefore, has important lessons for practice in all countries. Children in care have often experienced abuse and neglect in their own home environment; the least they should expect is safety from abuse when in care "Is This the Right Meeting?": Impact of Change on Joint Work with Children and Young People in DifficultyAndrew Kendrick, Murray Simpson and Elisabeth Mapstone1996 International Journal of Public Sector Management, 9(7), 18-31This paper is based on research funded by the Joseph Rowntree Foundation looking at change in services for children and young people in difficulty and the implications for inter-disciplinary working. The research is based on 80 interviews conducted with key individuals at local and national level (policy makers; managers and practitioners in agencies commissioning and providing services for families and children; professional organizations; consumer and user groups). It describes and analyses the changes in health, social work, education and the Children's Hearing system. The purchaser/provider split; local government reorganization and the Children (Scotland) Act will all affect collaboration in planning and service delivery for children and young people in difficulty. It identifies the potential problems and opportunities resulting from these changes and highlights the emerging issues relevant to provision of services. Knowing the Back Roads: Rural Social Work with Troubled Young PeopleAndrew Kendrick and Catriona Rioch1995 Youth & Policy, 51, 46-57Activities and opportunities for young people are restricted in rural areas. The effects of 'labelling' young people and their families can lead to social exclusion and discrimination. The literature of social work in rural areas has tended to focus on the 'macro' aspects of community development as opposed to the 'micro' aspect of working with individuals, families and groups. This article describes one project working with young people indifficulty in a rural area of Scotland. It assesses the effectiveness of the work of the project which involves: groupwork; individual work; work with parents; and work with other agencies. It argues that projects such as this can provide scope for innovation, flexibility and responsiveness to local needs in working with troubled young people and their families. The Integration of Child Care Services in ScotlandAndrew Kendrick1995 Children and Youth Services Review, 17(5-6), 619-635This article describes the development of integrated child care services in Scotland with a particular focus on the role of residential child care provision. It discusses changes in Social Work Department policies and the impact this has had on their relationship with the Children's Hearings system. Recent research shows the pattern of use of residential and foster care in three Social Work Departments and issues in the development of residential services are identified. Three particular examples of service integration are described: residential outreach work; a centre for young people under an integrated management; and multi-agency youth strategies. Social work and education services in Scotland are in the process of radical change. In the context of the integration of child care services, the paper discusses the impact of local government reorganisation and changes in child care legislation. Working with Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse: Issues for Social Work PracticeJim Ennis, Bryan Williams and Andrew Kendrick1995 Child Care in Practice, 2(1), 60-70This article discusses emerging work in mainstream social work practice with perpetrators of child sexual abuse. It emphasizes the importance of adopting a structured and planned approach in the development of practice with perpetrators of child sexual abuse. The article describes a three phase model of working which structures work around: assessment and planning (establishing factual information about the offender and the offence; assessment and the construction of a risk profile; establishing the basis for monitoring the perpetrator in the community; development of a contractual basis for work); intervention (the professional network in monitoring the offender; detailed attention needs to be paid to offender attitudes; discrepancies between offender language and behaviour need to be identified and challenged); and closure (the development of the offender's own awareness of risk factors in respect of his potential for further offending; the development in the offender of learned routines for diversion from situations of risk; work actively seeks to develop and encourage examples of positive, assertive behaviours; work actively seeks to develop and encourage an increase in age appropriate relationships and expansion of the offender's non-abusive social network). It also discusses the necessary organisational supports for practice: training, supervision; and management. Alcohol and Elderly People: An Overview of the Literature for Social WorkMurray Simpson, Bryan Williams and Andrew Kendrick1994 Ageing and Society, 14(4), 575-587This article attempts to highlight the pressing need for social work to take more account of the existence of alcohol problems being experienced by many elderly people. Surveying the available sketchy data, it would appear the perhaps as many as 15% of elderly social work clients may have alcohol related problems. The article continues by considering whether a discernable pattern of elderly drinking is identifiable, concluding that the greatest problems relate to the severity rather than the numbers having alcohol related problems, also coupled with an inability to access existing treatment services. Additionally, the article contends that there are ethical pitfalls in promoting interventions which rest upon stereotypical assumptions or purely technical considerations. In conclusion some of the main implications of the survey for social work practice are drawn out. The Functions of Child Care Reviews in Scotland: A Preliminary InvestigationAndrew Kendrick and Elisabeth Mapstone1989 British Journal of Social Work, 19(5), 407-419This second article based upon the first stage of a research project on statutory child care reviews in Scotland explores the perceptions of the functions of reviews. It identifies a number of primary functions (monitoring, decision-making, coordination of information, making earlier decisions more specific, reassessment of earlier decisions, and long term planning) which can be viewed together as elements in a rational model of decision-making. With certain provisos, this model allows us to distinguish analytically the explicit purpose of child care reviews. It shows that although a number of other functions (administration, check on work input of social worker, inform management of problems, staff development) take place in reviews these are not perceived as necessary to reviews and as such can be considered secondary functions.Who Decides? Child Care Reviews in Two Scottish Social Work DepartmentsAndrew Kendrick and Elisabeth Mapstone1991 Children & Society 5(2), 165-181There has been controversy for several years about the role of child care reviews - are they for decision-making or only for monitoring the progress of children in care. At the heart of this debate have been questions of involvement of children, parents and professionals from other agencies. This article takes forward these arguments based on research in two Scottish social work departments. As well as reporting and discussing the key issues, it identifies when and how different people (children, parents, social work department staff and other professionals) participate in reviews. It also addresses the specific implications of the external monitoring and decision-making role of the Children's Hearings system. The Chairperson of Child Care Reviews in Scotland: Implications for the Role of Reviews in the Decision Making ProcessAndrew Kendrick and Elisabeth Mapstone1989 British Journal of Social Work, 19(4), 277-289This article is based upon the first stage of a research project on statutory child care reviews in Scotland and explores the role of reviews in the decision-making processes for children in local authority care. It argues that the position of the chairperson of reviews has an important role in locating child care reviews in the organizational structures of the Social Work Departments. The designation of the chairperson also has implications for the objectivity of the child care review. The nature of the conclusions of child care reviews is also explored and it shows that this is a complex issue reflecting the child care review's relationships to other decision-making bodies and the manner in which the delegation of authority for the chairing of reviews is structured. `'Just What This Area Needs': An Evaluation of Four Community ProjectsAndrew Kendrick1987 Research, Policy and Planning 5(1), 14-19At their best, special funding measures provide opportunities for imaginative service development when the ability to innovate through mainstream budgets is increasingly constrained. Special funding usually aims at some form of positive discrimination, and in the case of the Urban Programme, it is towards multiple deprivation in local areas. There are important professional questions to be asked about the definitions of deprivation and the effectiveness of area-based projects, as well as the usefulness of particular types of work, in evaluating such developments. This article reports on a joint evaluation of four differing projects, but with a broadly `community development' approach, in urban areas in Scotland. It describes the evaluation methodology, identifies the objectives of the projects and discusses themes and problems common to the four projects: user participation; service provision; and social context.