Steven M. Blair

discover - a real-time monitoring and analysis tool

This program uses the open source rapid61850 project to listen to IEC 61850-9-2 LE Sampled Value streams in real-time.

Sampled Value data are analysed using code by Andrew Roscoe, as summarised in this paper. This provides detailed information about the voltage and current fundamental magnitude and phase, harmonics, power flow, etc. Frequency analysis is done using the resampled DFT method described in this paper, which is computationally efficient and offers low spectral leakage. The voltage and current information is visualised using a Qt-based GUI. The program is designed to be easy to use, lightweight, open source, and cross-platform. It has been tested on Windows, OS X, and Linux.

The code is available at GitHub.

Rapid-prototyping protection schemes with IEC 61850

The goal of this software is to automatically generate C/C++ code which reads and writes GOOSE and Sampled Value packets. Any valid IEC 61850 Substation Configuration Description (SCD) file, describing GOOSE and/or SV communications, can be used as the input. The output code is lightweight and platform-independent, so it can run on a variety of devices, including low-cost microcontrollers and the Raspberry Pi. It's useful for rapid-prototyping new power system protection, control, and automation systems that require communications.

The generated C code can be used as part of a C/C++ application, or can be compiled as a library for use within a Python or Java program.

The code is available at GitHub. The mbed microcontroller example code for IEC 61850-9-2LE Sampled Values is available here. You can also read the journal paper, the conference paper, look at the presentation slides, or email me for more information.

Multi-vendor IED management using IEC 61850

This project provides a simple, user-friendly, and consistent user interface for managing protection IEDs using a tablet or smartphone. The ultimate goal is that devices from all vendors can be monitored, configured, and tested using standards-based software.

At present, the process of managing power system protection IEDs is difficult: it's time-consuming and it's not designed around the users. I developed an Android tablet/smartphone app to provide simple and convenient access to important IED monitoring and control functions. This can significantly assist protection engineers with substation operations, as well as being used for research and development activities.

The app provides a list of all active protection IEDs, and prominently displays voltage, current, and frequency measurements and the protection trip and alarm status. The per-phase and sequence component voltage and current measurements are visualised as phasor diagrams, and the magnitude and angle values are provided. The power flow measurements are also provided, and visualised using a power triangle. The following control features have been implemented: viewing and modifying the active protection setting group; an LED "lamp test" for physically identifying IEDs; and resetting active trips and alarms.

The app has been used with several commercial IEDs, including the ABB REF615, Alstom P145, and Alstom P545. An "emulated IED" feature has been implemented for offline demonstration of the app.

The development process has highlighted areas for improvement with standardisation and with the different IED vendor implementations. For example, the use of the IEC 61850 data model should be consistent between vendors. Consequently, additional IED management features, such as providing detailed fault event data and protection settings, may be possible in the future.

This project was developed as part of the University of Strathclyde's Power Networks Demonstration Centre (PNDC). See our YouTube video for a demonstration of the main features. Here is a video of me demonstrating the app to the First Minister of Scotland during the official opening of PNDC.

Visualisation of voltage harmonics

This page has an interactive visualisation of the voltage resulting from a load which draws any specified current waveform. The harmonic (and interharmonic) content of the current drawn by the load can be controlled, or some typical loads can be selected.

Visualisation of power flow

This page has an interactive visualisation of the steady-state current and power flow between two voltage terminals (with arbitrary magnitude and phase), connected by a series impedance.

It works best with Chrome. The source code is here.

Visualisation of symmetrical components

This page has an interactive visualisation of symmetrical/sequence components, using processing.js. It works with Chrome and Firefox. The source code is here.

The dqo/Park transform visualisation (below) also offers a different way for visualising symmetrical components.

Visualisation of dq0 transform

This tool plots the dq0 (Park) transform for a specified input waveform. The three-phase input can be specified in terms of positive, negative, and zero sequence magnitudes and phases. It's also possible to add a harmonic of specified number, sequence, magnitude, and phase.

There are three variants of the dq0/Park transform: MATLAB SimPowerSystems version, the "classic" version, and Wikipedia's version.

This uses processing.js, and requires an HTML5 browser. The source code is here.

Resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) models for Simulink and RTDS

I have implemented the SFCL model described in 1 and 2. There is a version of the model for Simulink/SimPowerSystems, and an RSCAD version for an RTDS. Let me know if you have any comments or suggestions.

1 W. Paul, M. Chen, M. Lakner, J. Rhyner, D. Braun, W. Lanz, and M. Kleimaier, "Superconducting fault current limiter: applications, technical and economical benefits, simulations and test results", CIGRE SC 13, Technical Report, 2000.
2 J. Langston, M. Steurer, S. Woodruff, T. Baldwin, and J. Tang, "A generic real-time computer simulation model for superconducting fault current limiters and its application in system protection studies", IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 2090–2093, 2005.

SFCL current-time characteristics design

This tool plots the current-time characteristics of a resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL). Several superconductor properties can be adjusted to see their effect.

It uses processing.js, and requires an HTML5 browser. The source code is here.

IEEE 738 MATLAB implementation

IEEE 738-2006 (IEEE Standard for Calculating the Current-Temperature of Bare Overhead Conductors) includes a QuickBASIC implementation, which is slightly awkward to use. I've implemented the equations for MATLAB in IEEE738TemperatureRise.m, which requires the helper file getI.m.

The source code is on GitHub.

Chrome extension to remove frame/banner above IEEEXplore PDF files

This extension for Google Chrome removes the frame/banner above IEEEXplore PDF files. This makes better use of the vertical screen space.

The source code is available at GitHub.

Contact

Institute for Energy and Environment
Department of Electronic & Electrical Engineering
University of Strathclyde
Glasgow, UK

email: steven.m.blair@strath.ac.uk
office: +44 (0)141 548 4839
lab: +44 (0)141 548 5865

Google Scholar, Strathclyde KnowledgeBase, Strathprints, IET, GitHub, Research Gate, LinkedIn

Others in our research group: Philip Orr, Andrew J. Roscoe, Qiteng Hong

Journal papers

A Practical and Open Source Implementation of IEC 61850-7-2 for IED Monitoring Applications
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth
IEEE Transactions on Smart Grid (accepted, in press)

Measurement of 40 Power System Harmonics in Real-Time on an Economical ARM Cortex-M3 Platform
Andrew J. Roscoe, Gavin Oldroyd, Tom Sklaschus, Steven M. Blair, and Graeme M. Burt
IET Electronics Letters, Volume 49, Issue 23, 07 November 2013, p. 1475 - 1476
doi: 10.1049/el.2013.0299

An Open Platform for Rapid-Prototyping Protection and Control Schemes with IEC 61850
Steven M. Blair, Federico Coffele, Campbell D. Booth, and Graeme M. Burt
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 1103-1110, April 2013
doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2231099

Application of Multiple Resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters for Fast Fault Detection in Highly-Interconnected Distribution Systems
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Graeme M. Burt, and Chris G. Bright
IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 1120-1127, April 2013
doi: 10.1109/TPWRD.2012.2228011

Current-Time Characteristics of Resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, and Graeme M. Burt
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 22, no. 2, April 2012
doi: 10.1109/TASC.2012.2187291

Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Application in a Power-Dense Marine Electrical System
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Ian M. Elders, Nand K. Singh, Graeme M. Burt, and James McCarthy
IET Electrical Systems in Transportation, vol. 1, iss. 3, pp. 93-102, September 2011
doi: 10.1049/iet-est.2010.0053

Analysis of Energy Dissipation in Resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters for Optimal Power System Performance
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Nand K. Singh, Graeme M. Burt, and Chris G. Bright
IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 3452-3457, August 2011
doi: 10.1109/TASC.2011.2129518

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Conference papers

Improving IEC 61850 interoperability and simplifying IED configuration through the standardisation of protection settings
Qiteng Hong, Victoria M. Catterson, Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Adam Dyśko, and Tahasin Rahman
CIGRE Paris Session B5, 2014.

Demonstration and analysis of IP/MPLS communications for delivering power system protection solutions using IEEE C37.94, IEC 61850 Sampled Values, and IEC 61850 GOOSE protocols
Steven M. Blair, Federico Coffele, Campbell D. Booth, Bram De Valck, and Dominique Verhulst
CIGRE Paris Session B5, 2014.

MPLS networks for inter substation communication for current differential protection applications in digital substations
Joao Jesus, Carlos Diago, Ruben Lobo, Steven M. Blair, and Bram De Valck
PAC World Conference, Zagreb, Croatia, 2014

Increasing Distribution Network Capacity using Automation to Reduce Carbon Impact
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Paul Turner, and Victoria Turnham
IET Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2014.

Translating Proprietary Protection Setting Data into Standardized IEC 61850 Format for Protection Setting Validation
Qiteng Hong, Adam Dyśko, Victoria M. Catterson, Campbell D. Booth, Steven M. Blair, and Tahasin Rahman
IET Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP), Copenhagen, Denmark, 2014.

Analysis and Quantification of the Benefits of Interconnected Distribution System Operation
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Paul Turner, and Victoria Turnham
Advanced Power System Automation and Protection (APAP), Jeju Island, South Korea, 2013

An Open Platform for Rapid-Prototyping Protection and Control Schemes with IEC 61850 (Transactions Paper Session)
Steven M. Blair, Federico Coffele, Campbell D. Booth, and Graeme M. Burt
IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 2013
Presentation slides

Application of Multiple Resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters for Fast Fault Detection in Highly-Interconnected Distribution Systems (Transactions Paper Session)
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Graeme M. Burt, and Chris G. Bright
IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 2013
Presentation slides

Standardization of Power System Protection Settings Using IEC 61850 for Improved Interoperability
Qiteng Hong, Steven M. Blair, Victoria M. Catterson, Adam Dyśko, Campbell D. Booth, and Tahasin Rahman
IEEE PES General Meeting, Vancouver, Canada, 2013

Demonstration of Adaptive Overcurrent Protection Using IEC 61850 Communications
Federico Coffele, Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, John Kirkwood, and Bob Fordyce
CIRED, Stockholm, Sweden, 2013

Architecture for Automatically Generating an Efficient IEC 61850-based Communications Platform for Rapid-Prototyping of Protection Schemes
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, and Graeme M. Burt
PAC World Conference, Dublin, Ireland, 2011
Presentation slides

The Use of Real Time Digital Simulation and Hardware in the Loop to De-Risk Novel Control Algorithms
Sean Loddick, Ushe Mupambireyi, Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Xinyao Li, Andrew J. Roscoe, Kevin Daffey, and James Watson
European Conference on Power Electronics and Applications, Birmingham, UK, 2011

The Use of Real Time Digital Simulation and Hardware in the Loop to De-Risk Novel Control Algorithms
Sean Loddick, Ushe Mupambireyi, Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth, Xinyao Li, Andrew J. Roscoe, Kevin Daffey, and James Watson
IEEE Electric Ship Technologies Symposium, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, 2011, doi: 10.1109/ESTS.2011.5770869

Investigation of Superconducting Fault Current Limiter Application in a Power-Dense Marine Electrical Network
Steven M. Blair, Nand .K. Singh, Ian M. Elders, Campbell D. Booth, Graeme M. Burt, and James McCarthy
The 5th IET International Conference on Power Electronics, Machines and Drives (PEMD), Brighton, UK, 2010
doi: 10.1049/cp.2010.0024

Implications of Fault Current Limitation for Electrical Distribution Networks
Steven M. Blair, Andrew J. Roscoe, Campbell D. Booth, Graeme M. Burt, Anita Teo, and Chris G. Bright
The 10th IET International Conference on Developments in Power System Protection (DPSP), Manchester, UK, 2010
doi: 10.1049/cp.2010.0355, Poster link

Benchmarking and Optimisation of Simulink Code Using Real-Time Workshop and Embedded Coder for Inverter and Microgrid Control Applications
Andrew J. Roscoe, Steven M. Blair, and Graeme M. Burt
The 44th International Universities' Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Glasgow, UK, 2009
IEEE Xplore

Operational Control and Protection Implications of Fault Current Limitation in Distribution Networks
Steven M. Blair, Nand K. Singh, Campbell D. Booth, and Graeme M. Burt
The 44th International Universities' Power Engineering Conference (UPEC), Glasgow, UK, 2009
IEEE Xplore

Other Articles

The Analysis and Application of Resistive Superconducting Fault Current Limiters in Present and Future Power Systems
Steven M. Blair
PhD Thesis, University of Strathclyde, April 2013

Real-Time Teleprotection Testing using IP/MPLS over xDSL
Steven M. Blair, Campbell D. Booth
University of Strathclyde, May 2013